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  • Create a sensor to instantaneously ascertain a patient’s catecholamine and other target molecule levels in tears:
    • Multi-marker integrated
    • Inexpensive
    • User-friendly
    • Quick results
  • Develop a continuous sensor to monitor key molecules after traumatic brain injury:
    • Integrated
    • Accurate = Sensitive + Specific
    • If subcutaneous, anticoagulant
    • If in tears, non-invasive and comfortable
    • If in sweat, not too large to cause over-heating
    • Self-cleaning for extended use (while remaining biocompatible)

    Theoretical output of TBI sensor informing healthcare providers of changes in concentrations or metabolism rates of target molecules, such as the catecholamines, glucose or lactose.


  • Sensor 1: Instantaneous Stress Sensor
    • Ideal for on-site determination of stress
    • Examples:
      • Coach of football or other sports teams testing a player for dehydration or mild concussion
      • EMT or fist responder test to determine first steps of treating a patient after 911 call
  • Sensor 2: Traumatic Brain Injury Sensor:
    • Ideal for post-admission to hospital monitoring of TBI
    • For hospital setting where medicine can be administered if changes in key molecule metabolism occur
  • Sensor 3: Ambulatory Care Sensor
    • Monitor many physiological parameters wirelessly
    • This goal will be accomplished using invasive and non-invasive techniques
      • The invasive side of the project is using a subcutaneous needle sensor to measure key biomarkers related to stress, such as glucose for diabetes, cortisol for general stress, and the catecholamines for general body stress and inflammation related to injury such as traumatic brain injury.
      • The non-invasive side of the group is working on integrating electrodes that can be applied on the skin to measure physiological parameters such as heart rate variability, body hydration, and pulse oximetry.


The goal is to create two different sensors. The first will take tear reading and output the type of stress the person is experiencing based on the concentration of key molecules such as the catecholamines. The second will be a continuous Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) sensor which will monitor the brain’s dynamic metabolism of essential macro-particles such as glucose or the catecholamines. Electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and amperometric i-t curve analysis are conducted to establish the character of the target molecules. The next steps include designing the integrated sensors for multi-marker or single-marker integrated sensing for the different media in which the sensing will occur (e.g. blood, sweat, or tears).